JCPSLP Vol 18 No. 1Mar 2016

measures used to obtain data on the variables of interest and a lack of standardised data, which may have affected the results. Specifically, the assessments used may have impacted the possible correlation between language and phonological awareness, and the use of a receptive language score or core score only may have affected the overall finding that the participants, in general, had language within normal limits. It is also recommended that future research explore the nature of speech production deficits in children with CL/P, including an examination of both cognitive-linguistic aspects of speech production (i.e., phonological processes) and motoric aspects of speech production (i.e., articulatory function). Further investigation of the extent to which environmental, and personal factors, namely intelligence, and socioeconomic status contribute to the phonological awareness development of children with CL/P is required. Clinical implications The findings of the current study have implications for the management of phonological awareness skills of children with CL/P, in that they reiterate the importance of adopting a holistic approach, where treatment is tailored to the individual needs and circumstances of each child and family. Further, Chapman (2011) supports the implementation of early intervention for children with CL/P (i.e., incorporating pre-literacy tasks) and considers such instruction essential in reducing the impact of these deficits in children with CL/P. Therefore, parents should be provided with early instruction as to how to structure activities to benefit both language, and phonological awareness skills of Castles, A., & Coltheart, M. (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition, 91, 77–111. Chapman, K. L. (2011). The relationship between early reading skills and speech and language performance in young children with cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate- Craniofacial Journal, 48(3), 301–311. Collett, B. R., Stott-Miller, M., Kapp-Simon, K. A., Cunningham, M. L., & Speltz, M. L. (2010). Reading in children with orofacial clefts versus controls. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 35(2), 199–208. Cooper, D. H., Roth, F. P., Speece, D. L., & Schatschneider, C. (2002). The contribution of oral language skills to the development of phonological awareness. Applied Psycholinguists, 23(3), 399–416. da Silva, D. P., Collares, M. V. M., & da Costa, S. S. (2010). Effects of velopharyngeal dysfunction on middle ear of repaired cleft palate. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 47(3), 225–233. Dodd, B., Crosbie, S., McIntosh, B., Teitzel, T., & Ozanne, A. (2000). Preschool and primary inventory of phonological awareness. London, England: Psychological Corporation. Dodd, B., Hua, Z., Crosbie, S., Holm, A., Ozanne, A. (2002). Diagnostic evaluation of articulation and phonology. London, England: Psychological Corporation Limited. Durning, P., Chestnutt, I. G., Morgan, M. Z., & Nester, N. J. (2007). The relationship between orofacial clefts and material depreivation in Wales. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 22, 203–207. Farrar, J., Ashwell, S., & Maag, L. (2005). The emergence of phonological awareness: Connections to language and theory of mind development. First Language, 25(2), 157–177. children with CL/P. References

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JCPSLP Volume 18, Number 1 2016

Journal of Clinical Practice in Speech-Language Pathology

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